Breast Reduction for Men
Also known as gynecomastia correction, breast reduction for men is the surgical correction of over-developed or enlarged breasts in men.
Table of Contents
- Enhancing your appearance with gynecomastia surgery
- Procedural Steps
- Important facts about the safety and risks of gynecomastia
- My recovery
- The results will be long-lasting
- How much will gynecomastia cost?
- Words to know
Enhancing your appearance with gynecomastia surgery
Gynecomastia, a condition of over-developed or enlarged breasts in
men, is common in men of any age. It can be the result of hormonal
changes, heredity conditions, disease or the use of certain drugs.
Gynecomastia can cause emotional discomfort and impair your self
confidence. Some men may even avoid certain physical activities and
intimacy simply to hide their condition.
Gynecomastia is characterized by:
- Excess localized fat
- Excess glandular tissue development
- A combination of both excess fat and glandular tissue
- Gynecomastia may be present unilaterally (one breast) or bilaterally (both breasts)
Is it right for me?
Gynecomastia surgery is a highly individualized procedure and you
should do it for yourself, not to fulfill someone else’s desires or
to try to fit any sort of ideal image.
This procedure is a good option for you if:
- You are physically healthy and of relatively normal weight
- You have realistic expectations
- Your breast development has stabilized
- You are bothered by the feeling that your breasts are too large
Adolescents may benefit from surgery, although secondary procedures
may be needed in the future should breast development continue.
Surgical correction of gynecomastia is best performed on:
- Men whose condition cannot be corrected through alternative medical treatments
- Healthy individuals who do not have a life-threatening illness or medical conditions that can impair healing
- Non-smokers and non-drug users
- Men with a positive outlook and specific goals in mind for improving the physical symptoms of gynecomastia
What to expect during your consultation
The success and safety of your gynecomastia procedure depends very
much on your complete candidness during your consultation. You’ll be
asked a number of questions about your health, desires and lifestyle.
Be prepared to discuss:
- Why you want the surgery, your expectations and desired outcome
- Medical conditions, drug allergies and medical treatments
- Use of current medications, vitamins, herbal supplements, alcohol, tobacco and drugs including steroids
- Previous surgeries
Your surgeon may also:
- Evaluate your general health status and any pre-existing health conditions or risk factors
- Perform diagnostic testing to determine the underlying cause
of gynecomastia; this may include testing of your endocrine function
- Examine your breasts and may take detailed measurements of
their size and shape, skin quality, placement of your nipples and
- Take photographs for your medical record
- Discuss your options and recommend a course of treatment
- Discuss the likely outcomes of gynecomastia correction and any risks or potential complications
- Discuss the use of anesthesia during your breast reduction
Preparing for surgery
Prior to surgery, you may be asked to:
- Get lab testing or a medical evaluation
- Take certain medications or adjust your current medications
- Stop smoking well in advance of surgery
- Avoid taking aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs and herbal supplements as they can increase bleeding
Special instructions you receive will cover:
- What to do on the day of surgery
- Post-operative care and follow-up
Your plastic surgeon will also discuss where your procedure
will be performed. Breast reduction surgery may be performed in an
accredited office-based surgical center, outpatient/ambulatory surgical
center, or a hospital.
You’ll need help
If your gynecomastia surgery is performed on an outpatient basis, be
sure to arrange for someone to drive you to and from surgery and to stay
with you for at least the first night following surgery.
What happens during gynecomastia correction surgery?
Plastic surgery to correct gynecomastia is technically called
reduction mammaplasty, and reduces breast size, flattening and enhancing
the chest contours.
In severe cases of gynecomastia, the weight of excess breast tissue
may cause the breasts to sag and stretch the areola (the dark skin
surrounding the nipple). In these cases the position and size of the
areola can be surgically improved and excess skin may be reduced.
Medications are administered for your comfort during the surgical
procedure. The choices include intravenous sedation and general
anesthesia. Your doctor will recommend the best choice for you.
Liposuction: In cases where gynecomastia is primarily the result of excess fatty tissue, liposuction techniques alone may be used.
This requires insertion of a cannula, a thin hollow tube, through
several small incisions. The cannula is moved back and forth in a
controlled motion to loosen the excess fat, which is then removed from
the body by vacuum suction.
There are various liposuction techniques that may be used; the
technique most appropriate in your case will be defined prior to your
Excision: Excision techniques are recommended where glandular breast tissue or excess skin must be removed to correct gynecomastia.
Excision also is necessary if the areola will be reduced, or the
nipple repositioned to a more natural male contour. Incision patterns
vary depending on the specific conditions and surgical preference.
Sometimes gynecomastia is treated with both liposuction and excision.
Will there be scars?
Any surgical treatment to correct gynecomastia will require
incisions. While most incision lines are concealed within natural
contours, some may be visible and are a necessary result of breast
Important facts about the safety and risks of
The decision to have gynecomastia surgery is extremely personal and
you?,Ǩ,Ѣll have to decide if the benefits will achieve your goals and if
the risks and potential complications are acceptable.
Your plastic surgeon and/or staff will explain in detail the risks associated with surgery.
You will be asked to sign consent forms to ensure that you fully
understand the procedure you will undergo and any risks or potential
The risks include:
- Unfavorable scarring
- Bleeding (hematoma)
- Blood clots
- Poor wound healing
- Changes in nipple or breast sensation may be temporary or permanent
- If liposuction is used, additional risks include uneven
contours, rippling or loose skin, irregular pigmentation, excessive
fluid loss or fluid accumulation
- Anesthesia risks
- Breast contour and shape irregularities
- Skin discoloration, permanent pigmentation changes, swelling and bruising
- Damage to deeper structures such as nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and lungs can occur and may be temporary or permanent
- Allergies to tape, suture materials, glues, blood products, topical preparations or injected agents
- Breast asymmetry
- Fatty tissue found deep in the skin might die (fat necrosis)
- Fluid accumulation
- Deep vein thrombosis, cardiac and pulmonary complications
- Pain, which may persist
- Possibility of revisional surgery
Where will my surgery be performed?
Surgery to correct gynecomastia may be performed on an outpatient
basis, in an office-based or ambulatory surgical facility, or a hospital
setting. It may be performed under general anesthesia or local
anesthesia with sedation.
These decisions will be based on the requirements of your specific
procedure and in consideration of your preference and your doctor’s
best judgment. Your plastic surgeon and the assisting staff will fully
attend to your comfort and safety.
When you go home
If you experience shortness of breath, chest pains, or unusual heart
beats, seek medical attention immediately. Should any of these
complications occur, you may require hospitalization and additional
The practice of medicine and surgery is not an exact science.
Although good results are expected, there is no guarantee. In some
situations, it may not be possible to achieve optimal results with a
single surgical procedure. Another surgery may be necessary:
- To perform additional tightening or repositioning of the breasts
- To treat any complications that may occur
Following your physician’s instructions is key to the success of
your surgery. It is important that the surgical incisions are not
subjected to excessive force, abrasion, or motion during the time of
healing. Your doctor will give you specific instructions on how to care
Be sure to ask questions: It’s
important that you address all your questions directly with your plastic
surgeon. It’s natural to feel some anxiety, whether excitement for
the anticipated outcomes or preoperative stress. Discuss these feelings
with your plastic surgeon.
After surgery, dressings or bandages will be applied to your
incisions and an elastic bandage or support garment may be used to
minimize swelling and support your new chest contour as it heals.
A small, thin tube may be temporarily placed under the skin to drain any excess blood or fluid that may collect.
You will be given specific instructions that may include:
How to care for your surgical site(s) following surgery, medications to
apply or take orally to aid healing and reduce the risk of infection,
specific concerns to look for at the surgical site or in your general
health, and when to follow up with your plastic surgeon.
It’s very important to follow your plastic surgeon’s instructions and attend follow-up visits as scheduled.
The results will be long-lasting
The final results of breast reduction in men are permanent in many cases.
However, if gynecomastia resulted from the use of certain
prescription medications, drugs including steroids or weight gain you
must be fully free from these substances and remain at a stable weight
in order to maintain your results. Please discuss this with your
physician before making changes to your prescription medications.
All scars are permanent, even though some scars may be concealed in
the natural contours of the breast. Your improved upper body will likely
enhance your self-image and confidence, whether in a shirt and tie, a
t-shirt, or baring your chest at the beach.
How much will gynecomastia surgery cost?
Cost is always a consideration in elective surgery. Prices for
gynecomastia can vary widely. A surgeon’s cost for gynecomastia may
vary based on his or her experience as well as geographic location.
Many plastic surgeons offer patient financing plans, so be sure to ask.
Cost may include:
- Surgeon?,Ǩ,Ѣs fee
- Hospital or surgical facility costs
- Anesthesia fees
- Prescriptions for medication
- Post-surgery garments, and
- Medical tests
In most cases, correction of gynecomastia is not eligible for
insurance coverage. Each insurance policy varies greatly. Carefully
review your policy to determine coverage. The American Society of
Plastic Surgeons has published a position paper for physicians and
insurers defining the recommended criteria for reconstructive cases of
gynecomastia. Ask your physician for a copy of this document to submit
to your insurer.
Your satisfaction involves more than a fee
When choosing a plastic surgeon for gynecomastia surgery, remember
that the surgeon’s experience and your comfort with him or her are
just as important as the final cost of the surgery.
Words to know
- Areola: Pigmented skin surrounding the nipple.
- Bilateral gynecomastia: A condition of over-developed or enlarged breasts in men affecting both breasts.
- Endocrine system: A group of glands that
make hormones which help to control activities in your body such as
reproduction, metabolism, growth and development. Testing of your
endocrine system may be done to look for signs of diabetes, thyroid
disorders, growth hormone deficiency, osteoporosis, hypertension and
- Excision: To remove the skin.
- General anesthesia: Drugs and/or gases used during an operation to relieve pain and alter consciousness.
- Hematoma: Blood pooling beneath the skin.
- Intravenous sedation: Sedatives administered by injection into a vein to help you relax.
- Liposuction: Also called lipoplasty or
suction lipectomy, this procedure vacuums out fat from beneath the
skin?,Ǩ,Ѣs surface to reduce fullness.
- Local anesthesia: A drug injected directly to the site of an incision during an operation to relieve pain.
- Reduction mammaplasty: The surgical removal of breast tissue to reduce the size of breasts.
- Sutures: Stitches used by surgeons to hold skin and tissue together.
- Unilateral gynecomastia: A condition of over-developed or enlarged breasts in men affecting just one breast.